carolicrHi everyone!

My name is Caroline Cruaud and I am currently working as an associate professor in the Unit for Digitalisation and Education (eDU) of the University of South-Eastern Norway (USN).

I have a PhD from the Department of Education of the University of Oslo (Norway) on the topic of gamification of education entitled ‘The playful frame: design and use of a gamified application for foreign language learning’. In my PhD I developed a framework based on play theories and the concept of frame, to design and analyse play situations in a classroom context. I designed an app for French-as-a-foreign-language and investigated how it was used by Norwegian high school students and their teachers.

My main research focus is on playful learning and covers areas such as game-based learning, design-based research, and the process of designing tools for learning, especially within foreign language learning and teaching. But I am also interested in all sorts of innovative and alternative ways of learning and teaching: for example makerspaces or design thinking.

Researchgate profile

Linkedin profile



  • Cruaud, C. (2022). Le jeu comme objet de recherche en didactique des langues et des cultures : une méthodologie orientée par la conception. In Silva, H. (Ed.), Regards sur le jeu en didactique des langues et des cultures. Peter Lang.
  • Cruaud, C. (2018). Designing with Teachers: Contrasting Teachers’ Experiences of the Implementation of a Gamified Application for Foreign Language Learners. In Arnseth, Hanghøj, Henriksen, Misfeldt, Ramberg, & Selander (Eds.), Games and Education: Designs in and for Learning.  Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill | Sense.
  • Cruaud, C. (2018). The Playful Frame: Design and use of a gamified application for foreign language learning (Dissertation). University of Oslo, Oslo.
  • Cruaud, C. (2018). Learner Autonomy and Playful Learning: Students’ Experience of a Gamified Application for French as a Foreign Language. ALSIC21(1).
  • Cruaud, C. (2016). The playful frame: gamification in a French-as-a-foreign-language class. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching.

Presentations (selected)

  • Cruaud, C., Lofthus, L. & Brazier, E. (2021). Student Engagement in Digital Escape Room for Learning. NERA2021. Odense.
  • Cruaud, C. (2021). A Playful Approach to Foreign Language Learning and Teaching: Gamification in the French Classroom. Exploring Language Education (ELE). Oslo.
  • Cruaud, C. & Hogstad, K. (2021). The Play of Play. Reframing ‘Play’ from a Semiotic Materialist Point of View. Game, play and technologies in language learning and language teaching. Mexico.
  • Cruaud, C. (2019). Designing for playful learning: operationalising playfulness in the design of an app for foreign language learning. NERA2019. Uppsala.
  • Cruaud, C. (2019). Playful learning: research and practice on bringing play in the classroom. ITS Volda. Volda.
  • Cruaud, C. (2019) The Playful Frame – Gamification in the foreign language class. Game studies seminars. Skövde.